different types of Carpet Design in Iran
different types of Carpet Design in Iran is enormous, but there is a general category that each subset is one of the categories. In the past, any particular project has been devoted to a specific region that has identified the origins of the carpet. But nowadays, different designs are woven based on the taste of the merchant, the manufacturer or the customer in each region.
patterns are drawn in three ways: global designs that symmetry does not appear in them, so the whole design must be drawn.
One-second designs that have a vertical symmetry line, which the weaver weaves the whole carpet by the one-second plot,
The fourth quarter plans the weaver weaves the whole carpet by a quarter of the design. These designs have two lines of symmetry.
Here’s a general overview of the schemes for more details
With the advent of Islam to Iran and the belief that Muslims should pray in a clean place, this carpet design was popular. The shape of these carpets is directly related to Islamic religious architecture. Because prayer has a significant and sacred place, the prayer should have designs that refer to religious concepts and beliefs. These carpets come from an altar plan above that is arranged into a small arch and ends with two Corners at the corners, which indicates that the players should stand facing the qibla and lay hands on the prayer during the praying. Also in the upper part, there are poems and verses of the Quran and religious words that represent the spiritual life, and in the lower part, there are designs of flower pots and water jugs, animals and ground creatures that represent the earthly life.
These carpets are one-dimensional patterns and are usually woven in small dimensions. In Iran, during the Safavid period, it became prevalent with floral designs, maze and inscriptions written. In Nomads and villages, these types of carpets usually use symbols to repel evil and wound eyes.
A variety of altar designs include altar angular, columnar, inscribed, golden, thousand flowers, flower, and tree, all of which are integrated designs.
medallion design – Corner
The most common design based on a fourth-quarter plan is the medallion design – Corner. the medallion is a circular design in the carpet center that impresses on the rest of the design. In traditional compositions, the bergamot pattern is repeated in corners, which is called Corner. The use of medallion design – Corner is one of the hallmarks of the Safavid periodicals. The scheme has an ancient history that was first seen in geometric tortillas in the Mamluk carpets of Egypt and Anatolia, followed by curved bell peppers in the Ottoman and Persian carpets.
This design was introduced in the 15th century under the influence of the support of the Timurid sultans in Iran. In fact, the medallion design displays a plan of the sun that has the concept of the gates of the sky, and a path between the earthly and heavenly worlds.
In most cases, the medallion is elliptical in its longitudinal shape and has two parts called the upper medallion. Typically, the color of the medallion has a contrasting color to the background.medallion and corners are in harmony with design and color. medallions are not always circular or elliptical. Rhizome, geometric, hexagonal bronchi are also used according to the design.
Rugs include images and objects created by truth and based on miniature designs. Valuable examples are for custom collections that are custom-made. During the Qajar period, the rich class had a special interest in carpets with indigenous themes (such as the anecdotes of Shah Khosrow and Bahram Gur during the Sassanid period), epic literature (such as Lily and Magnon) and European, so carpets with different themes from Lily and Majnon to Napoleon was woven.
Facial painting is another issue that was influenced by European paintings in the late Qajar 19th century, and the faces of princes and aristocrats were woven. A lot of attention has been paid to the costumes and decorations that inspired artists during that period. One of the famous and popular shahs in carpet weaving was Shah Abbas Safavi’s face with a long mustache.
The project is considered to be a national project, and usually, there are inscriptions in Persian poems on the sidelines of these projects, and the name of weaver and designer is mentioned.
This design has evolved from the Safavid era and hunting scenes, horse riders pursuing hunting, realistic and imaginative pets are fighting and human beings fighting wild animals are the themes of these carpets. These designs are often included in global plans. Hunting is considered to be the aristocratic archetype of the East, and it represents the superiority of human intelligence and human power to the natural world that weavers have raised in this matter. The texture of this design is common in Qom, Kerman, and Isfahan.
Paisely is a delicate design that is used in most areas. It looks like a drop with its end section bent to the other and different meanings and the origin is unknown. Beth is a Persian word meaning flower bushes. The use of yang design has been prevalent in the 18th-century carpet. It has different meanings, including musk, drops of water, almonds, pine fruits, palm leaves, parrot beetles. Beth’s plot is close to Zoroastrian symbols. Some believe that Beth’s plan is rooted in the Far East and the well-known Yin Yang design is a symbol of equilibrium in the world.
Beth is a popular role among the weavers, both in the field and in the Margins. Beth is very applicable in the design Stripped. Constraints are a pattern of vertical columns in which each of them is plotted in a zigzag line. In Kerman and in the shade of Beth, there are mothers and daughters who are in the opposite direction in the main groove of a small butt. In Kordestan, Bethas is large and inside them are fine flowers. In the combination of flowers, the beads are in the form of petals around the central rose. It is also commonly used in Afshari carpets. It is very popular in Yazd, Kerman, and Qa’enat, perhaps because of Zoroastrianism that is common in these areas.
The most commonly used decorative elements in carpets that are designed in very different and very naturalistic shapes. As agreed, flowers are asymmetrical or directional called Palm flowers, and symmetrical flowers are known as red or rose flowers, all of which are included in the bouquet of roses. These flowers are rooted in the Lotus flowers and typical of traditional Chinese and eastern designs.
In the 17th century, a flower pattern inspired by the Lotus flower called Shah Abbasi spread out in rugs that have different types and dimensions and is still used in many rugs. The flower’s role is used in various designs and, depending on the design of the carpet, includes a variety of varieties. Among the flower designs, the flower bouquets along with the birds’ image, the Hana plan in Meshkabad and Soltan Abad, which include circular flowers, inside the networks of toothed leaves and delicate stalks, the flower grass that the same flower French roses, which are used both on the margins and in the text, and spread throughout the 19th century.
In China, flowers used in rugs have different meanings, such as the flower of thorn or ice, which is a sign of courage in the face of hardship and a symbol of the winter. The bamboo flower is a symbol of stability and long life. Chrysanthemum is the symbol of autumn. Flower symbolizes wealth, beauty and love. Orchid flower is a symbol of humility and humility. The Lotus flower is an old symbol of purity, power, and fertility and fertility and a symbol of summer, and the peach blossom is the symbol of spring.
Trees are sometimes used as truthful and sometimes as simple and contractual. They are often directional and have a global pattern. Sometimes birds and other animals are on the branches or behind them. In another plan, the branches of the tree branch out of a large central pot.
Laymazy’s designs are also popular. In fact, in the Eastern culture of the tree, there are deep mystical and symbolic concepts such as immortality and fertility. Along the tree of life, usually, two guards are woven to protect it, which is mostly animal images.
Another tree plan that was used in carpet weaving in the 15th and 16th centuries was the speaker’s tree, the fact is that a fantasy tree with large leaves and round fruits from humans and animals, which had the ability to foresee the future. These designs have been used both in the field and in the margin.
Rectangular or rectangular spaces are often woven in custom carpets for the purpose of informing the name of the designer, the weaver or the customer, and the date of the texture. Sometimes, in the inscription, he praises the beauty of the carpet, and sometimes it is mentioned in the Qur’an or God’s name. In the rest of the cases, the beauty of the garden is mentioned in the flowers and associated with the carpet. Sometimes because of the weaver’s inexperience or his illiteracy, it is totally unreadable.
Jumble fish (Herati – fish) design
Herati, which is common in most parts of Iran. From the 16th and 17th centuries in Herat, floral designs have been woven with a busy background from a large, split pot. It was initially geometrically broken and gradually curved. Palm and red flowers with different shapes on the background are arranged in regular rows attached to curved stems.
Herati’s plan is a rhizome-shaped plan, consisting of curved stems and circular flowers. Each head of the rhizome has chamomile and 4 leaves in four corners, sometimes leafy in the form of fish Can be seen. For this reason, it is also known as the Harati- Fish.
The famous fishy sketches in Iran can be mentioned in the fishes of the Farahan fishes of Sarband or Malayer.
It is a design based on the Herat Fish pattern, which is used in flower rhizosphere instead of daisies of circular flowers with more petals. Usually, the flowers are bright in red, and the field is mustache and worm color is rarely used. From the 18th century it became more common in carpet weaving in Jošeghān and Shiraz, and then by tribes and villagers. In Varamin, Kurdish groups of Pazouki live in a beautifully crafted, professional design with their own specialties known as the Varamin Malayer.
The design of a vase with flower branches in the center is known as a potted design, which is a plan and is either a global pattern or a second. In the Safavid period, Kerman was widely spread. In this design, the vase origin is a complex design, with fields filled with flowers, leaves, and stems. Potted plants are commonly used in carpets. The vase is concentrated in the center and has large dimensions in the form of a jug that has left a bunch of flowers.
Zel Sultan vase design
This design is an original design that has a Persian root and includes a large vase and flower cloth in it, located on each side a bird. The plan is said to have been designed for the sake of Zul Sultan, the ruler of Isfahan. This project was very common in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Malayer area and later became popular in Qom and Tabriz.
Overall flower design
Afshan in Farsi means thoroughly blossomed. A design that has become very common in the 17th century and in the Safavid period and continues to this day. In the 18th century, the composition was very rich and beautiful. In this design, flowers, leaves, and branches were sliced and untied in carpet textures and were used more than flowers of the Abbasid king as the main flowers and other flowers for further decoration.
This design has become popular since the 17th century, and is also known as a swimming pool in Iran, as a central part of the dock was located in the center, with small spikes.
The garden plan is a naturalistic project of gazebos separated by geometric shapes. These water jets are getting together at the center, and in these hurricanes, fish and water usually swim that water has flooded the plan. In the gardens, various designs such as cedar, insect canines, bushes, flower pots, pictures of animals and birds have been used. The use of this design is prevalent by Bakhtiari in southern Isfahan, Chahar Mahal, Qom, Kerman, and Birjand.
Arabesque; slimi design
In this design, the stems are curvilinear veins, which are adorned with central bergamot, filling the flowers and leaves of the field, and the stems are symmetrical and polygonal. These curved stalks are called slimi.
The exact root of this word is unclear. Some find it taken from the sultan Salim who was designed for him. Some believe that the word is Islam and some others have invented it as the designer of Isfahan court called Slim who has put his name on this project.
Multiple – panel design
The background of the carpet in these designs is divided into parts or frames that are regularly arranged side by side and decorated in each frame with different flowers and leaves.
In these designs, a variety of geometric shapes are used. Usually, there are angles and the motifs are broken up. These designs are often reserved for villagers and nomads.